Biochemistry, molecular genetics, and biology glossary terms for Companion Sites.


o-o items o-o are in brief format :
o-o endogenous
o-o enhancer
o-o evolution
o-o exogenous

Links to more detailed items on Companion Sites :
ECM ǒ endosymbiosis - secondary ǒ endosymbiosis SETembryogenesis & differentiationendoplasmic reticulumendosomes ǒ Endosymbiotic transfers (SET)Endosymbiotic transfer events (SET) ǒ endosymbiosis - history of ideas re SET ~ energy itemsenergy transducers ~ enhancer ~ enzymes items ~ enzyme ^ Eocyte Archaea Tree ф eosinophils ~ epigeneticsepigenetic mechanisms »» Epistasis ~ ERKsESEESS ¤ estrogen receptors ^ Eubacteria taxonomyeukaryotes, eukaryotic ǒ evidence for serial endosymbiosis α Evidence Found for Origin of GenesEvo Devo ~ evolution items »» Evolution - biologicalevolution and gene regulationevolution and genetic variation α evolution and organogenesis α Evolutionary Distance Analysis & Maximum Parsimony Analysisevolutionary hotspots in genome ~ exonexons - cassetteexon skippingexosome ǒ Experimental evidence for Endosymbiosisextracellular matrix

Molecules & Pathways φ epinephrine

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endogenous vs exogenous

Endogenous substances or agents arise within the cell, tissue, or organism body. Conversely, exogenous substances or agents arise outside the cell, tissue, or organism.

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An enhancer is a short DNA sequence that increases the level of expression of another gene. Specific trans-acting, transcription factors bind to the enhancer to bring about the increase in transcription rate – recruiting the preinitiation complex proteins, or stabilizing the preinitiation complex.

The enhancer segment may be situated upstream or downstream of the enhanced gene and, due to looping of the DNA strands, there may be a separation of several thousand base pairs between the enhancer and initiator gene (start site). However, the enhancer and its regulated gene are located on the same chromosome (cis). The orientation of enhancers is not fixed – that is, the enhancer’s sequence may be reversed without altering its function.

Glossary : A . B . C . D . E . F . G . H . I . J . K . L . M . N . O . P . Q . R . S . T . U . V . W . X . Y . Z .

Gray Sites • Abiogenesis & EvolutionAlgorithms of EvolutionCell BiologyChemistry of LifeCyanobacteriaEnzymesEvo DevoImmunologyMechanisms of EvolutionMolecular BiologyOrigin of LifePaleogeologyRefuting IDSerial EndosymbiosisStromatolitesTaxonomy PhylogenyVirus • White Sites • Diagrams & TablesEubacteria & ArchaeaMoleculeMolecular PathsPathwaysPhotosynthesis • Black Sites • EndosymbiosisOrganics

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Evolution, in a vernacular sense, is a process by which something passes by degrees to a different stage (particularly to a more advanced or mature stage).

Evolution is also used to represent, or misrepresent (too often!) biological evolution or the body of scientific theories that seek to explain the observable fact of biological evolution. In the broadest sense, biological evolution refers to the sequence of events involved in the evolutionary development of a species or taxonomic group of organisms. More specifically, biological evolution has come to be defined according to alteration in genotype. Because the regulation and timing of gene expression determines phenotype, it is simplistic to demand a 1:1 correspondence between genotype and phenotype.

Scientists observing biological evolution first sought to explain observed morphological changes over time – phenotypic evidence of changes in body structure found in the fossil record. Since the advent of modern molecular genetics, biological evolution has come to be understood as a change in genotype – a genetic alteration in the intergenerational frequency of alleles in populations. The modern synthesis has moved understanding beyond Darwinism and Neo-Darwinism, and simple taxonomies are being superceded by phylogenetic analyses.

A α Analyses of physiological evolutionary response ∩∩∩ Ancient stromatolite reefs ¿ Answers to Creationist NonsenseArchaea Eocyte Tree B † Bacterial taxonomy α Before the Beginning ¿ Biological evolution »»» Basic mechanisms of evolution »» Biological Evolution »» Beyond Darwin and Neo-Darwinism »» Bottleneck C † Cambrian explosion »» Conjugation »» Conserved & Consensus ¿ Creationism vs Evolution α CHONSP and RNA world »» Conjugation »» Conserved & Consensus D α Darwin α Darwin in the Galapagos »» Deletion α DNA evolutionary connectionsdirectional epistasis »» Duplicationduplications of gene & genome E † Endosymbiotic transfer events »» Epistasis α Evidence Found for Origin of Genes α evolution and organogenesis α Evolutionary Distance Analysis & Maximum Parsimony Analysisevolutionary hotspots in genome F »» formulae »» Founder effect »» Frameshift G »» Gene flow »» Genetic drift »» genetics »» genome and proteome H † History of taxonomic concepts »» Horizontal Gene Transfer I ¿ Illogical Deceit Theory »» Important features of the genome and proteome »» Insertion »» Inversion L √ lateral gene transfer ¿ Logic & Science α LUCA M √ Maximum Likelihood method »» Meiosis »» Mendel's Laws α MicroRNAs Have Shaped The Evolution Of The Majority Of Mammalian Genes α Miller-Urey & Beyond α Minimal Genome α Minimal Molecules »» mispairing »» Missense Mutation ∩∩∩ Modern stromatolites – living fossils »» modern synthesis »» Molecular Genetics α mtDNA α Multi-Level Selection »» Mutation N »» Natural selection »» Non-disjunction »» Nonsense Mutation O ¿ On the teaching of Pseudoscience α optimization P »» Persistence of functional gene duplicates »» Phyletic gradualismPhylogenetic trees »» point mutation »» Population Genetics and Formulae α Primordial Soup : Theories »» proteome and genome »» Punctuated equilibria R\¿ Recapitulating recapitulation »» Recombination ¿ Reducible complexity α RNA world ~ RNA world S »» selection »» single nucleotide polymorphism »» SNP »» Speciation ∩∩∩ Stromatolite fossilssupertrees »» synthesis T † Taxonomy »» The modern synthesis α Timeline of Life α Top Down & Bottom Up α Tree of Life α Tree of Life or Fuzzy Bush of Life »» Transduction »» Transformation »» transition »» Translocation »» transversion W α Why I'm Happy I Evolved - New York Times .

Alphabetic links to Glossary items:

Gray Sites α Abiogenesis & EvolutionAlgorithms of EvolutionCancerCell Biology ~ Chemistry of LifeCyanobacteriaEnzymesEvo DevoImmunology »» Mechanisms of EvolutionMolecular BiologyOrigin of LifePaleogeology ¿ Refuting ID ǒ Serial Endosymbiosis ∩∩∩ StromatolitesTaxonomy PhylogenyVirus • White Sites • Diagrams & TablesEubacteria & ArchaeaMoleculeMolecular PathsPathwaysPhotosynthesis • Black Sites • EndosymbiosisOrganics

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. . . since 10/06/06