Biochemistry, molecular genetics, and biology glossary terms for Companion Sites.

adenylyl cyclases

Adenylyl cyclases (adenylate cyclases) are transmembrane enzymes that cross the membrane twelve times, and which convert ATP to the second-messenger cAMP (3',5' cyclic AMP) and pyrophosphate (Pi).

Adenylyl cyclases are coincidence detectors, meaning that they are only activated by several different signals occurring together – they are modulated by G-proteins, forskolin, Ca2+/calmodulin, and other class-specific substrates.

In cell physiology research, forskolin is a vasodilator drug that is employed to elevate cAMP levels. Forskolin activates adenylyl cyclase and resensitizes cell receptors. Calmodulin (CaM) is a small, versatile, acidic protein that binds Ca2+ second messenger through CaM's four EF-hand domains (motifs).

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